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Metro State APA handouts

Style manuals and online help

Finding DOIs

If a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) exists for a publication, the APA style manual requires that it be included at the end of the citation in the reference list. Sometimes DOIs are listed in the article databases, but not always. To doublecheck whether or not a DOI exists, use this search feature at

Citation Managers

Citation managers collect and organize citations, and help you create reference lists.

The Metro State Library supports Zotero, an open source citation manager. To learn more, and for assistance in setting it up, visit our Zotero guide.

Citing Indigenous oral knowledge

Official APA style provides guidelines in citing oral communications, but some scholars think this falls short of adequate description of oral Indigenous sources and oral traditions. This article offers APA and MLA type alternative formats for citing oral sources.

MacLeod, L. (2021). More than personal communication: Templates for citing Indigenous elders and knowledge keepers. KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies, 5(1),

The Metro Writing Center offers this handout with examples on Citing Indigenous Oral Teachings.

Writing and Grammar